Journal Article Detail Page

The Physics Teacher
written by David Hestenes, Malcolm Wells, and Gregg Swackhamer
This article reports the rationale, design, validation, and uses of the "Force Concept Inventory," an instrument to assess students' beliefs on force. Results and implications of two studies that compared the inventory with the "Mechanics Baseline" are included. The article includes a copy of the instrument.
The Physics Teacher: Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 141-158
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education Foundations
- Assessment
= Instruments
General Physics
- Physics Education Research
- Lower Undergraduate
- High School
- Assessment Material
= Test
- Reference Material
= Research study
Intended Users Formats Ratings
- Researchers
- Educators
- application/pdf
- text/html
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© 1992 American Association of Physics Teachers
Attitude Measures, Beliefs, Cognitive Measurement, Cognitive Structures, Force, Force Concept Inventory, High Schools, Higher Education, Item Analysis, Measures (Individuals), Mechanics (Physics), Misconceptions, Motion, Newton Laws of Motion, Physics, Science Education, Science Instruction, Test Construction, Test Validity
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created July 13, 2005 by Lyle Barbato
Record Updated:
July 8, 2010 by Lyle Barbato
Last Update
when Cataloged:
March 1, 1992
Other Collections:

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Record Link
AIP Format
D. Hestenes, M. Wells, and G. Swackhamer, Phys. Teach. 30 (3), 141 (1992), WWW Document, (
D. Hestenes, M. Wells, and G. Swackhamer, Force concept inventory, Phys. Teach. 30 (3), 141 (1992), <>.
APA Format
Hestenes, D., Wells, M., & Swackhamer, G. (1992, March 1). Force concept inventory. Phys. Teach., 30(3), 141-158. Retrieved August 9, 2020, from
Chicago Format
Hestenes, D, M. Wells, and G. Swackhamer. "Force concept inventory." Phys. Teach. 30, no. 3, (March 1, 1992): 141-158, (accessed 9 August 2020).
MLA Format
Hestenes, David, Malcolm Wells, and Gregg Swackhamer. "Force concept inventory." Phys. Teach. 30.3 (1992): 141-158. 9 Aug. 2020 <>.
BibTeX Export Format
@article{ Author = "David Hestenes and Malcolm Wells and Gregg Swackhamer", Title = {Force concept inventory}, Journal = {Phys. Teach.}, Volume = {30}, Number = {3}, Pages = {141-158}, Month = {March}, Year = {1992} }
Refer Export Format

%A David Hestenes
%A Malcolm Wells
%A Gregg Swackhamer
%T Force concept inventory
%J Phys. Teach.
%V 30
%N 3
%D March 1, 1992
%P 141-158
%O application/pdf

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article
%A Hestenes, David
%A Wells, Malcolm
%A Swackhamer, Gregg
%D March 1, 1992
%T Force concept inventory
%J Phys. Teach.
%V 30
%N 3
%P 141-158
%8 March 1, 1992

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The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

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